28 days of creatine nitrate supplementation is apparently safe in healthy individuals. (bibtex)
by Jordan M Joy, Ryan P Lowery, Paul H Falcone, Matt M Mosman, Roxanne M Vogel, Laura R Carson, Chih-Yin Tai, David Choate, Dylan Kimber, Jacob A Ormes, Jacob M Wilson and Jordan R Moon
Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Creatine monohydrate has become a very popular nutritional supplement for its ergogenic effects. The safety of creatine monohydrate has previously been confirmed. However with each novel form of creatine that emerges, its safety must be verified. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the safety of a novel form of creatine, creatine nitrate (CN), over a 28 day period. METHODS: 58 young males and females (Pooled: 24.3 $\pm$ 3.9 years, 144.9 $\pm$ 8.0 cm, 74.2 $\pm$ 13.0 kg) participated in this study across two laboratories. Subjects were equally and randomly assigned to consume either 1 g (n = 18) or 2 g (n = 20) of CN or remained unsupplemented (n = 20). Blood draws for full safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist prior to and at the conclusion of the supplementation period. RESULTS: Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group x time interactions for absolute lymphocytes and absolute monocytes (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 1 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for red blood cell distribution width, platelets, absolute monocytes, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN):creatinine, sodium, protein, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 2 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for BUN:creatinine and ALT (p < 0.05). BUN and BUN:creatinine increased beyond the clinical reference range for the 2 g treatment of Lab 2, but BUN did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Overall, CN appears to be safe in both 1 g and 2 g servings daily for up to a 28 day period. While those with previously elevated BUN levels may see additional increases resulting in post-supplementation values slightly beyond normal physiological range, these results have minor clinical significance and are not cause for concern. Otherwise, all hematological safety markers remained within normal range, suggesting that CN supplementation has no adverse effects in daily doses up to 2 g over 28 days and may be an alternative to creatine monohydrate supplementation.
Reference:
28 days of creatine nitrate supplementation is apparently safe in healthy individuals. (Jordan M Joy, Ryan P Lowery, Paul H Falcone, Matt M Mosman, Roxanne M Vogel, Laura R Carson, Chih-Yin Tai, David Choate, Dylan Kimber, Jacob A Ormes, Jacob M Wilson and Jordan R Moon), In J Int Soc Sports Nutr, volume 11, 2014.
Bibtex Entry:
@article{Joy:2014aa,
	abstract = {BACKGROUND: Creatine monohydrate has become a very popular nutritional supplement for its ergogenic effects. The safety of creatine monohydrate has previously been confirmed. However with each novel form of creatine that emerges, its safety must be verified. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the safety of a novel form of creatine, creatine nitrate (CN), over a 28 day period. METHODS: 58 young males and females (Pooled: 24.3 $\pm$ 3.9 years, 144.9 $\pm$ 8.0 cm, 74.2 $\pm$ 13.0 kg) participated in this study across two laboratories. Subjects were equally and randomly assigned to consume either 1 g (n = 18) or 2 g (n = 20) of CN or remained unsupplemented (n = 20). Blood draws for full safety panels were conducted by a trained phlebotomist prior to and at the conclusion of the supplementation period. RESULTS: Pooled data from both laboratories revealed significant group x time interactions for absolute lymphocytes and absolute monocytes (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 1 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for red blood cell distribution width, platelets, absolute monocytes, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN):creatinine, sodium, protein, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p < 0.05). Analysis of the 2 g treatment revealed lab x time differences for BUN:creatinine and ALT (p < 0.05). BUN and BUN:creatinine increased beyond the clinical reference range for the 2 g treatment of Lab 2, but BUN did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Overall, CN appears to be safe in both 1 g and 2 g servings daily for up to a 28 day period. While those with previously elevated BUN levels may see additional increases resulting in post-supplementation values slightly beyond normal physiological range, these results have minor clinical significance and are not cause for concern. Otherwise, all hematological safety markers remained within normal range, suggesting that CN supplementation has no adverse effects in daily doses up to 2 g over 28 days and may be an alternative to creatine monohydrate supplementation.},
	address = {Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, Tampa, FL USA ; MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO USA.; Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, Tampa, FL USA.; MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO USA.; MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO USA.; MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO USA.; MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO USA.; MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO USA.; Metropolitan State University, Denver, CO USA.; Metropolitan State University, Denver, CO USA.; Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, Tampa, FL USA.; Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, Tampa, FL USA.; MusclePharm Sports Science Institute, MusclePharm Corp., Denver, CO USA ; Department of Sports Exercise Science, United States Sports Academy, Daphne, AL USA.},
	author = {Joy, Jordan M and Lowery, Ryan P and Falcone, Paul H and Mosman, Matt M and Vogel, Roxanne M and Carson, Laura R and Tai, Chih-Yin and Choate, David and Kimber, Dylan and Ormes, Jacob A and Wilson, Jacob M and Moon, Jordan R},
	crdt = {2015/01/16 06:00},
	date = {2014},
	date-added = {2023-01-12 19:47:04 +0000},
	date-modified = {2023-01-14 11:33:26 +0000},
	dcom = {20150115},
	dep = {20141220},
	doi = {10.1186/s12970-014-0060-9},
	edat = {2015/01/16 06:00},
	issn = {1550-2783 (Print); 1550-2783 (Electronic); 1550-2783 (Linking)},
	jid = {101234168},
	journal = {J Int Soc Sports Nutr},
	jt = {Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition},
	keywords = {Creatine, Athletic Performance},
	language = {eng},
	lid = {10.1186/s12970-014-0060-9 {$[$}doi{$]$}; 60},
	lr = {20181113},
	mhda = {2015/01/16 06:01},
	number = {1},
	oto = {NOTNLM},
	own = {NLM},
	pages = {60},
	phst = {2014/07/01 00:00 {$[$}received{$]$}; 2014/12/01 00:00 {$[$}accepted{$]$}; 2015/01/16 06:00 {$[$}entrez{$]$}; 2015/01/16 06:00 {$[$}pubmed{$]$}; 2015/01/16 06:01 {$[$}medline{$]$}},
	pii = {60},
	pl = {United States},
	pmc = {PMC4293808},
	pmid = {25589898},
	pst = {epublish},
	pt = {Journal Article},
	status = {PubMed-not-MEDLINE},
	title = {28 days of creatine nitrate supplementation is apparently safe in healthy individuals.},
	url = {http://nelsontavares.com/r/papers/%2028%20days%20of%20creatine%20nitrate%20supplementation%20is%20apparently%20safe%20in%20healthy%20individuals.pdf},
	volume = {11},
	year = {2014},
	bdsk-url-1 = {https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-014-0060-9}}
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