Dietary intake of total, animal, and plant proteins and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies (bibtex)
by Sina Naghshi, Omid Sadeghi, Walter C. Willett and Ahmad Esmaillzadeh
Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To examine and quantify the potential dose-response relation between intake of total, animal, and plant protein and the risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science until December 2019, and references of retrieved relevant articles. STUDY SELECTION: Prospective cohort studies that reported the risk estimates for all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in adults aged 18 or older. DATA SYNTHESIS: Random effects models were used to calculate pooled effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest categories of protein intake and to incorporate variation between studies. Linear and non-linear dose-response analyses were done to evaluate the dose-response relations between protein intake and mortality. RESULTS: 32 prospective cohort studies were included in the systematic review and 31 in the meta-analysis. During the follow-up period of 3.5 to 32 years, 113 039 deaths (16 429‬ from cardiovascular disease and 22 303‬ from cancer) occurred among 715 128 participants. Intake of total protein was associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality (pooled effect size 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.99, I2=58.4%, P\textless0.001). Intake of plant protein was significantly associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality (pooled effect size 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 0.97, I2=57.5%, P=0.003) and cardiovascular disease mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 0.96, I2=63.7%, P=0.001), but not with cancer mortality. Intake of total and animal protein was not significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality. A dose-response analysis showed a significant inverse dose-response association between intake of plant protein and all cause mortality (P=0.05 for non-linearity). An additional 3% energy from plant proteins a day was associated with a 5% lower risk of death from all causes. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of total protein was associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality, and intake of plant protein was associated with a lower risk of all cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Replacement of foods high in animal protein with plant protein sources could be associated with longevity.
Reference:
Dietary intake of total, animal, and plant proteins and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies (Sina Naghshi, Omid Sadeghi, Walter C. Willett and Ahmad Esmaillzadeh), In BMJ (Clinical research ed.), volume 370, 2020.
Bibtex Entry:
@article{naghshi_dietary_2020,
	abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To examine and quantify the potential dose-response relation between intake of total, animal, and plant protein and the risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science until December 2019, and references of retrieved relevant articles.
STUDY SELECTION: Prospective cohort studies that reported the risk estimates for all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in adults aged 18 or older.
DATA SYNTHESIS: Random effects models were used to calculate pooled effect sizes and 95\% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest categories of protein intake and to incorporate variation between studies. Linear and non-linear dose-response analyses were done to evaluate the dose-response relations between protein intake and mortality.
RESULTS: 32 prospective cohort studies were included in the systematic review and 31 in the meta-analysis. During the follow-up period of 3.5 to 32 years, 113 039 deaths (16 429‬ from cardiovascular disease and 22 303‬ from cancer) occurred among 715 128 participants. Intake of total protein was associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality (pooled effect size 0.94, 95\% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.99, I2=58.4\%, P{\textless}0.001). Intake of plant protein was significantly associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality (pooled effect size 0.92, 95\% confidence interval 0.87 to 0.97, I2=57.5\%, P=0.003) and cardiovascular disease mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.88, 95\% confidence interval 0.80 to 0.96, I2=63.7\%, P=0.001), but not with cancer mortality. Intake of total and animal protein was not significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality. A dose-response analysis showed a significant inverse dose-response association between intake of plant protein and all cause mortality (P=0.05 for non-linearity). An additional 3\% energy from plant proteins a day was associated with a 5\% lower risk of death from all causes.
CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of total protein was associated with a lower risk of all cause mortality, and intake of plant protein was associated with a lower risk of all cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. Replacement of foods high in animal protein with plant protein sources could be associated with longevity.},
	author = {Naghshi, Sina and Sadeghi, Omid and Willett, Walter C. and Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad},
	date-modified = {2023-01-08 12:15:49 +0000},
	doi = {10.1136/bmj.m2412},
	issn = {1756-1833},
	journal = {BMJ (Clinical research ed.)},
	keywords = {CVD, Diet, Protein},
	language = {eng},
	month = jul,
	pages = {m2412},
	pmcid = {PMC7374797},
	pmid = {32699048},
	shorttitle = {Dietary intake of total, animal, and plant proteins and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality},
	title = {Dietary intake of total, animal, and plant proteins and risk of all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies},
	volume = {370},
	year = {2020},
	bdsk-url-1 = {https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2412}}
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